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CarthageOverview of the rise and fall of Carthage, with a detailed discussion of Hannibal's victories against Rome, including the Battle of Cannae, and his later defeat at the Battle of Zama.
The Greek historian Polybius and the Roman historian Livy are the two primary sources for his life. According to them, Hannibal was taken to Spain by his father and at an early age was made to swear eternal hostility to Rome. It is clear that Hannibal emerged as a successful officer, for, on the assassination of Hasdrubal inthe army proclaimed him, at age 26, its commander in chief, and the Carthaginian government quickly ratified his field appointment.
Hannibal immediately turned himself to the consolidation of the Punic hold on Spain. He married a Spanish princess, Imilce, and then conquered various Spanish tribes. He fought against the Olcades and captured their capital, Althaea, and he quelled the Hannibal of carthage the father of strategy in the northwest.
Inmaking the seaport of Kart-hadasht modern CartagenaSpain his base, he won a resounding victory over the Carpetani in the region of the Tagus River. In the treaty between Rome and Carthage subsequent to the First Punic War —the Ebro had been set as the northern limit of Carthaginian influence in the Iberian Peninsula.
The siege of Saguntum lasted eight months, and in it Hannibal was wounded. The Romans, who had sent envoys to Carthage in protest though they did not send an army to help Saguntumafter its fall demanded the surrender of Hannibal.
Thus began the Second Punic War, declared by Rome and conducted, on the Carthaginian side, almost entirely by Hannibal. Leaving his brother Hasdrubal in command of a considerable army for the defense of Spain and North Africahe crossed the Ebro in April or May and then marched into the Pyrenees.
Hannibal may have started from Cartagena with an army of around 90,—including an estimated 12, cavalry—but he left at least 20, soldiers in Spain to protect his supply lines. In the Pyrenees his army, which included at least 37 elephants, met with stiff resistance from the Pyrenean tribes.
Meanwhile, the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio transported his army, which had been detained in northern Italy by a rebellion, by sea to the area of Massilia Marseillea city that was allied to Rome. Realizing that Hannibal probably planned to cross the Alps, Scipio returned to northern Italy to await him.
Fourques, opposite Arles, is thought by some to have been the likely crossing place. Many also consider as possibilities the natural historic fording places between modern Beaucaire and Avignon.
Hannibal used coracles and boats locally commandeered; for the elephants he made jetties out into the river and floated the elephants from those on earth-covered rafts.
Horses were embarked on large boats or made to swim. During the operation hostile Gauls appeared on the eastern bank, and Hannibal dispatched a force under Hanno to cross farther upstream and attack them from behind.
Indeed, Polybius makes it clear that Hannibal did not march toward the Alps blindly but instead had excellent information about the best routes. Hannibal took countermeasures, but those involved him in heavy losses in men.
On the third day he captured a Gallic town and from its stores provided the army with rations for two or three days. Those unnamed Gauls attacked the baggage animals and rolled heavy stones down from the heights, causing both men and animals to panic and lose their footings on the precipitous paths.
Harassed by such daytime assaults and mistrusting the loyalty of his Gallic guides, Hannibal bivouacked on a large bare rock to cover the passage by night of his horses and pack animals in the gorge below. Then, before dawn, he led the remainder of his force through the narrow gorge entrance, killing the few Gauls who had guarded it and believed Hannibal to be trapped.
Mustering his forces at the summit of the Alps, Hannibal remained camped there for several days before his descent into Italy. Polybius makes it clear that the summit itself must have been high enough for snow drifts to persist from the previous winter; along with the other criteria extrapolated from Polybius, that suggests a summit elevation of at least 8, feet 2, metres.
The problem of determining the exact location of the camp is compounded by the fact that the name of the pass was either not known to Polybius and his sources or it was thought not sufficiently important to provide to mostly Roman readers. Along the end stages of the route, snow was falling on the pass, making the descent even more treacherous.
Rockslides made travel on the narrow track hazardous, and the army was held up for most of a day while it was made passable for the pack animals and elephants. Finally, on the 15th day, after a journey of five months from Cartagena, with 25, infantry6, cavalryand most of his original 37 elephants, Hannibal descended into Italy.Hamilcar Barca, 𐤇𐤌𐤋𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤁𐤓𐤒 or Barcas (c.
– BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago.
Hannibal The “Father Of Strategy” Article shared by Between the years and b.c.e., the Romans and Carthaginians fought three wars known as the Punic Wars that . Hannibal the wily Carthaginian General is one of the foremost military strategists ever.
A genius of war, he took the battle into the homeland of Rome - the superpower of the time and roamed the length and breadth of the Italian peninsula with impunity. and it is for this reason that he is often acclaimed as the father of military strategy.
Hannibal The “Father Of Strategy” Article shared by Between the years and b.c.e., the Romans and Carthaginians fought three wars known as the Punic Wars that eventually led to the destruction of Carthage.
Carthage Overview of the rise and fall of Carthage, Hannibal was taken to Spain by his father and at an early age was made to swear eternal hostility to Rome. From the death of his father in / until his own death about , strategy: Strategy in antiquity.
Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy", Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania.
When his father drowned sent a delegation to Carthage alleging Hannibal was helping an enemy of regardbouddhiste.comons: Hasdrubal Barca, Mago Barca, Hasdrubal the Fair.