Research methods — qualitative, exploratory, inductive and basic research approaches 1.
Bibliography Definition The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured [if measured at all] in terms of quantity, amount, intensity, or frequency. Qualitative researchers stress the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the situational constraints that shape inquiry.
Such researchers emphasize the value-laden nature of inquiry. They seek answers to questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaning. In contrast, quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables, not processes.
Qualitative forms of inquiry are considered by many social and behavioral scientists to be as much a perspective on how to approach investigating a research problem as it is a method. The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research.
Denzin and Yvonna S. Sage,p. Characteristics of Qualitative Research Below are the three key elements that define a qualitative research study and the applied forms each take in the investigation of a research problem.
The Design Naturalistic -- refers to studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally; nonmanipulative and noncontrolling; the researcher is open to whatever emerges [i. Purposeful -- cases for study [e.
That is, they offer useful manifestations of the phenomenon of interest; sampling is aimed at insight about the phenomenon, not empirical generalization derived from a sample and applied to a population.
Empathic neutrality -- an empathic stance in working with study respondents seeks vicarious understanding without judgment [neutrality] by showing openness, sensitivity, respect, awareness, and responsiveness; in observation, it means being fully present [mindfulness].
Dynamic systems -- there is attention to process; assumes change is ongoing, whether the focus is on an individual, an organization, a community, or an entire culture, therefore, the researcher is mindful of and attentive to system and situational dynamics.
The Analysis Unique case orientation -- assumes that each case is special and unique; the first level of analysis is being true to, respecting, and capturing the details of the individual cases being studied; cross-case analysis follows from and depends upon the quality of individual case studies.
Inductive analysis -- immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important patterns, themes, and inter-relationships; begins by exploring, then confirming findings, guided by analytical principles rather than rules.
Context sensitive -- places findings in a social, historical, and temporal context; researcher is careful about [even dubious of] the possibility or meaningfulness of generalizations across time and space; emphasizes careful comparative case analyses and extrapolating patterns for possible transferability and adaptation in new settings.
Voice, perspective, and reflexivity -- the qualitative methodologist owns and is reflective about her or his own voice and perspective; a credible voice conveys authenticity and trustworthiness; complete objectivity being impossible and pure subjectivity undermining credibility, the researcher's focus reflects a balance between understanding and depicting the world authentically in all its complexity and of being self-analytical, politically aware, and reflexive in consciousness.
Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Allyn and Bacon, ; Denzin, Norman. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage, ; Marshall, Catherine and Gretchen B. Sage Publications, ; Merriam, Sharan B. A Guide to Design and Implementation.
Basic Research Design for Qualitative Studies Unlike positivist or experimental research that utilizes a linear and one-directional sequence of design steps, there is considerable variation in how a qualitative research study is organized.
In general, qualitative researchers attempt to describe and interpret human behavior based primarily on the words of selected individuals [a.
There is a reflexive process underpinning every stage of a qualitative study to ensure that researcher biases, presuppositions, and interpretations are clearly evident, thus ensuring that the reader is better able to interpret the overall validity of the research.BASIC CONCEPTS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (An Essay) Quantitative and Qualitative research methods, discussing the Epistemology, methodology, and the varying techniques each method uses.
The essay will also take a brief look at the Ethical considerations of research using relevant psychology examples. - Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Research Methods Introduction This paper will discuss the approaches that can be used to conduct quantitative, qualitative and mixed method research that is based on a problem statement and a purpose statement that have been developed to study the adoption of sales force automation technology.
Other Qualitative Methods The last section of this chapter outlines less common but, nonetheless, potentially useful qualitative methods for project evaluation. These methods include document studies, key informants, alternative . In this essay I am going to express my understanding of the key principles of qualitative research.
In order to understand the nature of qualitative research, we must primarily look at the constructivist ontology and the interpretivist epistemology, which will allow us to develop an understanding of. Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Methods Essay - Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Research Methods Introduction This paper will discuss the approaches that can be used to conduct quantitative, qualitative and mixed method research that is based on a problem statement and a purpose statement that have been developed to study .
Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, and quantifiable data. Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, and quantifiable data.
My special thanks goes to Camilo.