Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof. After introductory remarks on manuscripts in general, we shall take up in detail the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Armenianand Coptic manuscripts of the Bible; manuscripts of other versions are not important enough to come within the scope of this article. In general Manuscripts may be conveniently divided into papyrus and vellum manuscripts.
Syllabaries[ edit ] Syllabaries are spread around the world in use. Here is an example of a typical syllabary, romanized. This is the Cree system: To make final consonants of the CVC formthe last row of symbols, called the "Finals", are added. So, "tak" would be written with two symbols: Many syllabaries use this method, and it is basically limited to languages with a small number of legal final consonants.
Another system for finals, used by the Mayan syllabary system, is the "Principle of Synharmony". This states that a final vowel is marked by reduplicating the previous vowel. For example, a word like "kalo" is done with two symbols, as usual: But, if you want the syllable "kal", the previous vowel is repeated: Since the vowel was repeated, it is ignored on the second syllable.
This applies for any vowel. But what if you want to make the syllable "kala"? That requires three syllables, adding in a simple vowel: The second "a" is negated, but returned by the next syllable.
A third system, used by Hittite, comprised of two sets of syllables, one set in CV form, and another set in VC form. Sometimes, though not always, syllables with a relation, such as the same consonant, look similar.
For example, the syllables "ka", "ke", "ki", etc. In systems such as in Ojibwe, the vowel signs are changed by simply rotating the symbol around. Examples of Natlang Syllabaries[ edit ] Cree rotationalused by Ojibwe, Cree, Inuktitut, and many other Native American languages; collectively may be known as "Aboriginal Syllabics".
Semisyllabaries[ edit ] There is a set of scripts from pre-Roman Spain that sit in an intermediate category between true alphabets and syllabaries. In those scripts, the plosives combine with the following vowels in a single syllabogram — for instance, there is a single symbol for PA, another for PI, another for PE, etc.
Ancient civilizations created logography first, and then evolved them into other systems. In a logographic system, each symbol represents a morpheme, or the smallest meaningful part of language.
For example, "hand", "red", "place", "-er", "-ist", "un-" and "anti-" are all morphemes. In a logographic system, each of these would get its own symbol. As you can probably imagine, there are thousands of morphemes in most languages, and hence thousands of symbols exist in any logographic system.
However, these symbols are not all random. In general, symbols of words that represent visible ideas or things are often little drawings.C++ read/write - RamDisk vs RAM [closed] Ask Question. up vote 0 down vote favorite. I'm using Ubuntu 32 BIT.
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Regarded as a vital defence to the Empire’s eastern frontiers, emperors used various means of influence from outright takeover to gifts of titles and lands to Armenian nobles. The Armenian Genocide Finally Gets Its Due With the Film ‘The Promise’ The Nation is reader the denial of this horrific crime has left the Armenian people in state of incomplete mourning.
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