Its History and Techniques. Introduction This booklet will provide persons interested in the ways of early American life some information about soap and soap making. Soap making is a homestead skill often forgotten in discussions of colonial days.
Soaps and Detergents are chemical compound or mixture of compounds used as a cleansing agent. Soap Soap is a sodium salt or potassium salt of many combinations of fatty acids having cleansing action in water. Some of the examples are: Sodium stearate, sodium oliate and sodium palmitate formed using stearic acid oleic acid and palmitic acid.
The soaps contain fats and oils. Manufacturing Process of Soap The fats and oils required for manufacturing soaps are extracted from the plants and animals. To make the fatty acids called triglyceride molecule, three fatty acid molecules are added with the one molecule of glycerine.
Fatty acids are weak acids composed of two parts. A carboxylic acid group having one hydrogen H atom, two oxygen O atoms, and one carbon C atom, and a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. Normally, it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon C atoms carrying two hydrogen H atoms.
Earlier the alkali required for making soaps were obtained from the animals but now they are clinically composed. The common alkalis used in soap making are sodium hydroxide NaOHalso called caustic soda; and potassium hydroxide KOHand also called caustic potash. Saponification Saponification is the most common process used for soap making.
A number of fats and oils are heated and mixed with a liquid alkali to produce soap and water neat soap plus glycerine. Neutralization Fats and oils are hydrolyzed with a high-pressure steam to get crude fatty acids and glycerine.
The fatty acids are purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap. When sodium is used as alkali, the soaps formed are solid and hard. On the other hand the soaps having potassium as Alkali are much softer and liquid in shape.
The cleaning property of soaps much depends on the hardness of the water which contains harmful minerals. Hence we make use of surfactants. Detergents Detergent surfactants are much better solutions for the cleaning purpose as the hardness of water does not affect them.
Today detergent is a better liquid form solution used for cleaning purposes.Soap saponification 1. A soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a long‐chain fatty acid. Most solid soaps are sodium salts of the type to be made in this experiment.
Soap are produce by saponification process. Saponification is reaction between fat and strong alkali (such as potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide) and produce soap . Saponification 1) Since calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids are insoluble in water, how would you expect this to affect the usefulness of soap in hard water?
2) If you were to make soap (using 4 grams of lard, 2 mL of M sodium hydroxide & boiling it) and add it to the [ ]. Chart of Saponification Values for Making Soap Fat or Oil Lye (Sodium Hydroxide), NaOH Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide), KOH ♥ Indicates a fat not from an animal source.
Animal! Indicates a fat from an animal source. These saponification values indicate the amount of lye (sodium hydroxide) or the amount. 1. Functions of Soap Soap primarily serves as a dirt remover and a cleanser.
It is used in bathing, cleaning, and also as a lubricant. Oil, grease, and other forms of dirt do not dissolve in water. Essay about Saponifacation of Ethyl Acetate and Soldium Hydroxide.
o, the activation energy, E, and the reaction rate constants, k, of the saponification process of ethyl acetate using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 5 temperature between 15 and 25 degrees Celsius.
More about Essay about Saponifacation of Ethyl Acetate and . May 11, · Interesting Facts About Soap. Sunday, May 31, but there is no external heating as all the heat comes form the saponification reaction which is exothermic (i.e.
an excess of heat is produced by the chemical changes in the components of the reaction.
and whether sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide is the.