It would also include discussion of mechanical, analog and digital computing architectures.
Early history[ edit ] During — Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Francis Maneclang about Charles Babbage 's newest proposed machine, the analytical engine ; she supplemented the memoir with notes that specified in detail a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with the engine, recognized by some historians as the world's first computer program.
To some people, some degree of expressive power and human-readability is required before the status of "programming language" is granted. Jacquard Looms and Charles Babbage's Difference Engine both had simple, extremely limited languages for describing the actions that these machines should perform.
First programming languages[ edit ] In the s, the first recognizably modern electrically powered computers were created.
The limited speed and memory capacity forced programmers to write hand tuned assembly language programs. It was eventually realized that programming in assembly language required a great deal of intellectual effort.
The first programming languages designed to communicate instructions to a computer were written in the s. However, it was not implemented until and However, the program had to be translated into machine code every time it ran, making the process much slower than running the equivalent machine code.
At the University of ManchesterAlick Glennie developed Autocode in the early s, with the second iteration developed for the Mark 1 by R. Brooker inknown as the "Mark 1 Autocode".
Brooker also developed an autocode for the Ferranti Mercury in the s in conjunction with the University of Manchester. Hartley of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in Known as EDSAC 2 Autocode, it was a straight development from Mercury Autocode adapted for local circumstances, and was noted for its object code optimisation and source-language diagnostics which were advanced for the time.
A contemporary but separate thread of development, Atlas Autocode was developed for the University of Manchester Atlas 1 machine. Inlanguage FORTRAN was invented at IBM by a team led by John Backus ; it was the first widely used high level general purpose programming language to have a functional implementation, as opposed to just a design on paper.
Hopper found that business data processing customers were uncomfortable with mathematical notation, and in earlyshe and her team wrote a specification for an English programming language and implemented a prototype.
This report consolidated many ideas circulating at the time and featured three key language innovations: Another innovation, related to this, was in how the language was described: Nearly all subsequent programming languages have used a variant of BNF to describe the context-free portion of their syntax.
Algol 60 was particularly influential in the design of later languages, some of which soon became more popular. The Burroughs large systems were designed to be programmed in an extended subset of Algol.
Algol 68's many little-used language features for example, concurrent and parallel blocks and its complex system of syntactic shortcuts and automatic type coercions made it unpopular with implementers and gained it a reputation of being difficult.
Niklaus Wirth actually walked out of the design committee to create the simpler Pascal language.Many companies, such as Apple Computer and Radio Shack, introduced very successful PC’s in the s, encouraged in part by a fad in computer (video) games.
In the s some friction occurred in the crowded PC field, with Apple and IBM keeping strong. Whenever I explore a new field I like to get an overview of how things got to be the way they are – A short timeline of how we’ve arrived at the “state of the art”.
The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App.
Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - . A Short History of Computers and Computing Robert Mannell One of the earliest machines designed to assist people in calculations was the abacus which is still being used some years after its invention.
In this history of SMART goals, I look at where the acronym came from, who developed it, what the critics say and why it has become popular.